By Avery Udagawa
SCBWI welcomes translators, and many authors and illustrators hope to see their books translated.
So how do translations happen? How can we get more books translated? Here are some FAQs with answers.
1. Who makes a translation happen?
A translation happens when the original publisher of a book sells foreign language rights to another publisher, who issues the book in a new language and market. The publisher who buys rights will choose the translator and make all decisions about how to present the book in its new form. The foreign rights deal may begin at an event like the Bologna Children’s Book Fair or Frankfurt Book Fair. Foreign rights agents may mediate, or the publishers may negotiate directly. Stakeholders can converse year-round via the Internet or meetings.
Factors that drive a deal may include the fit of a text to a publisher’s list, its availability on other platforms (like TV or film) and its genre, author, illustrations, prior sales, and awards. Finally, culture matters: publishers in one market may bring different tastes than publishers elsewhere.
2. How does a translator get involved?
A translator of children’s books gets involved when a publisher who bought foreign rights to a title commissions the translation. The publisher might find the translator through recommendations, prior publications, the translator’s website, or a group like SCBWI. Some publishers ask several translators to submit samples before awarding a commission.
3. How can a translator network and develop skills?
A translator can build a network by seeking work relevant to children’s literature—for example, with publishers who commission sample translations for book fairs, or publishers who seek reader’s reports on overseas titles. Children’s literature conferences offer opportunities to meet publishers and network. Sometimes translators develop connections and skills in graduate programs, but as with writing and illustration no educational track “knights” a translator of children’s books. The professional translator offers degrees or extensive experience in her languages and cultures combined with writing skills. A translated book must engage readers as deftly as all of the other books they read. In this sense, literary translation differs as much from spoken interpretation—as in The Interpreter—as writing books differs from talking.
4. What helps a book’s chances of being translated?
A foreign rights pitch stands a better chance if the original publisher (or its rights agent) maintains a broad international network, and can provide a high-quality sample translation and promotional materials. It also helps if a government agency or other group can offer a grant to support the translation. Predictably, publishers and organizations in wealthy countries marshal more resources to market translations. This affects the representation of cultures and language groups on readers’ bookshelves.
5. How can translators, authors, and others encourage translations?
To encourage more translations, some translators propose texts they love directly to publishers for whom they seem a fit. This brings risk as publishers can always commission other translators, but it may raise awareness of under-marketed books. Authors who hope to see their books translated can network with SCBWI’s translators and international members, to study new markets—keeping in mind that one’s publisher must seal any foreign rights deal. Finally, groups who value translation can create grants for translated children’s literature. Grants spotlight deserving titles and help translators develop their skills.
6. What’s the big picture?
Everyone interested in translation should know about the imbalance between books written in English and books written in all other languages. A New York Times op-ed published July 7, 2015, notes that English as a global language “is turning literature into a one-way street,” with English-language books traveling widely and making authors in other languages struggle to compete, even at home. Often, fine overseas authors are not translated into English. This holds true in children’s literature. Translations count for just 3 percent of books published in the US. “So many books are translated from English, but not so many go the other way, which is a real shame, as readers are missing out on great stories,” translator Laura Watkinson tells Publishers Weekly in an August 6, 2015 article. Watkinson founded SCBWI Netherlands and has translated three of the past four winners of the Batchelder Award, conferred with the Newbery and Caldecott. SCBWI supports world literature, and many members enjoy foreign sales. For all, a question to ask alongside “How can I get translated?” is “What’s the last children’s book in translation I’ve read?”
Here are places to read on.
Acclaimed translations for children
Batchelder Award winners: www.ala.org/alsc/awardsgrants/bookmedia/batchelderaward/batchelderpast
Marsh Award winners: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsh_Award_for_Children%27s_Literature_in_Translation
Andersen Award winners: www.ibby.org/308.0.html?&L=2%2F%2F%2F%27
On translation and children’s books
Go Global: We Are the World at CBC Diversity blog: www.cbcdiversity.com/post/121270943783/go-global-we-are-the-world
YA in Translation at Stacked blog: www.stackedbooks.org/2014/11/get-genrefied-ya-in-translation.html
We Need More International Picture Books, Kid Lit Experts Say at School Library Journal, April 22, 2015: www.slj.com/2015/04/books-media/we-need-more-international-picture-books-kid-lit-experts-say/#_
Found In Translation, op-ed in the New York Times, July 7, 2015: www.nytimes.com/2015/07/08/opinion/found-in-translation.html?_r=0
Translator commentaries and interviews
A World for Children by Daniel Hahn: www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b04hyyr0
Eight Ways to Say You: The Challenges of Translation by Cathy Hirano: archive.hbook.com/magazine/articles/1999/jan99_hirano.asp
SCBWI Summer Conference 2015: An Interview with Nanette McGuinness: www.scbwi.blogspot.com/2015/06/translation-at-la15scbwi-avery-udagawa.html
An Interview with Laura Watkinson: www.ihatov.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/an-interview-with-laura-watkinson/ and Laura Watkinson featured in Publishers Weekly, August 6, 2015: www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/childrens/childrens-book-news/article/67732-fickling-to-publish-dutch-classic.html
Avery Fischer Udagawa www.averyfischerudagawa.com translated the middle grade novel J-Boys: Kazuo’s World, Tokyo, 1965 by Shogo Oketani and the story “House of Trust” by Sachiko Kashiwaba in Tomo: Friendship Through Fiction: An Anthology of Japan Teen Stories. Her latest translation is “Swing” by Mogami Ippei, illustrated by Saburo Takada, in Kyoto Journal 82. She coordinates the SCBWI Japan Translation Group www.ihatov.wordpress.com and serves as SCBWI International Translator Coordinator.